Archive for March, 2012

English Language Reference-Idioms: Part 1

Native speakers of English often use idioms. What are idioms?

An idiom is a phrase whose meaning is difficult or sometimes impossible to guess or understand by looking at the meanings of the individual words it contains. For example, the phrase be in the same boat has a literal meaning that is easy to understand, but it also has an idiomatic meaning:

>  I found the lesson diffcult at first. But we were all in the same boat ; we were all learning.

Here, be in the same boat  means ‘to be in the same difficult or unfortunate situation’.

Some idioms are imaginative expressions such as proverbs and sayings:

> Too many cooks spoil the broth.

(= If too many people are involved in the samething, it will not be well done.)

If the expression/idiom is well known, part of it may be left out:

> Well, I knew everything would go wrong- it’s the usual story of too many cooks!

Other idioms are short expressions that are used for a particular purpose:

> Hang in there! ( used to encourage somebody in a difficult situation)

> Get lost! ( a rude way of saying ‘go away’)

Many idioms however, are not vivid in this way. They are considered as idioms because their form is fixed:

> for certain

> in any case

In a good dictionary you will find idioms are difined at the entry for the first ‘full’ word ( a noun, a verb, an adjective or an adverb) they contain. This means ignoring any grammatical words such as articles and prepositions. Idioms follow the main senses of a word, in section marked -IDM:

IDM in the blink of an eye very quickly; in a short time on the blink (informal) (of a machine) no longer working correctly.

The words in, the and on in these idioms do not count as ‘full’ words, and so the idioms are not listed at the entries for these words.

Deciding where idioms start and stop is not always easy. If you hear for example this expression:

> They decided to bury the hatchet and try to be friends again.

you might think that hatchet is the only word you do not know and look that up. In fact bury the hatchet is an idiomatic expression and it is defined at bury. At hatchet you will find a cross-reference directing you to bury:

hatchet noun a small AXE (= a tool with a short handle– picture at AXE IDM see BURY

OK that’s a brief explanation of idioms. More detailed explanations will follow in Part 2 of  my Idioms Post.

Now lets just look at few well known idioms and their meanings:

English idioms relating to AMBITION – DETERMINATION – PERSEVERANCE

Exploreall avenues

Fighttooth and nail

Flyby the seat of your pants

Goto great lengths

Gointo overdrive

Keep your nose to the grindstone

Have one’s heartset on something

Hell-bent on something  If you are hell-bent on doing something, you are recklessly   determined to do it, even if it’s dangerous or stupid. “Although he is still weak, he’s hell-bent on playing the match.”Hitch one’s wagon to a star  Someone who hitches their wagon to a star has great   ambitions and is very determined to reach their goal.   “At an early age she decided to hitch her wagon to a star   and become rich and famous.”Kill two birds with one stone  If you kill two birds with one stone, you succeed in doing   two things at the same time.   “By studying on the train on the way home every week-end,   Claire kills two birds with one stone.”Make hay while the sun shines   This expression is used as an encouragement to take   advantage of a good situation which may not last.   “Successful sportsmen are advised to make hay while   the sun shines.”Make headway If you make headway, you make progress in what you   are trying to achieve.   “Investigators have made little headway in their search for   the causes of the catastrophe.”Mean business  If someone means business, they are serious about what   they announce.   “The boss says that in future any missing material will be   reported to the police, and he looks as though he means   business.”Pester power  This expression refers to the power children exert over their   parents by continually nagging or pestering them until they   accept to buy advertised toys or fashionable products.   “Pester power leads busy parents to buy more and more   for their children.”Reach for the moon  If you reach for the moon, you are very ambitious and try   to achieve something even if it’s difficult.   “His parents were hardworking people who encouraged their    children to reach for the moon.”Raise/lower your sights  If you raise or lower your sights, you raise or lower your   expectations, or you are more or less ambitious..   “He had to lower his sights and accept a less ll-paid job   than what he had hoped for.”Sink one’s teeth into something  If you sink your teeth into something, you do it with a lot   of energy and enthusiasm.   “When Julie got promoted, she immediately sank her teeth   into her new job.”The sky’s the limit   To say “the sky’s the limit” means that there is no limit   to thepossibility of success or progress for someone or   something.   “How successful do you think the project will be?    Who knows… the sky’s the limit!”Stand on your own two feet   If you stand on your own two feet, you are independent   and need no help from anyone.   “When young people leave home, they learn to stand on   their own two feet.”
At all costs   If you are determined to obtain or achieve something at all   costs, you want it regardless of the expense, effort or sacrifice   involved.   “The journalist was determined at all costs to get a report from   the war zone.”

Avowed intent   When someone makes a public declaration of their objective   or goal, this is their avowed intent.   “The avowed intent of the new Government is to reduce    unemployment.”
Beard the lion in his den   If you visit someone important in the place where they work,   because you are determined to challenge him/her or obtain   something, you beard the lion in his den.
Have a bee in one’s bonnet   A person who has a bee in their bonnet has an idea   which constantly occupies their thoughts.   “She’s got a bee in her bonnet about moving to New York.”
Beyond one’s wildest dreams   If something is beyond your wildest dreams, it is better   than you imagined or hoped for.   “The research team received a grant from the government   that was beyond their wildest dreams.”
Blood, sweat and tears   A project or action which involves blood, sweat and tears requires a lot of effort and hard work.   “His success wasn’t due to luck; it was blood, sweat and   tears all the way.”
Have something on the brain   If you have something on the brain, you think or talk   about it constantly.   “Stop talking about golf.  You’ve got golf on the brain!”
Buckle down   If you buckle down, you apply yourself with determination to   hard work and give it your full attention.   “If you want to pass your exams, you’ll have buckle down and   do some serious work.”
Dig in your heels    If you dig in your heels, you refuse to do something,   especially if someone is trying to convince you to do so.   “My grandfather dug in his heels and refused to move to an   apartment.”
An eager beaver   The term eager beaver refers to a person who is hard-   working and enthusiastic, sometimes considered overzealous.   “The new accountant works all the time – first to arrive and   last to leave  – a real eager beaver!”
  If you explore all avenues, you try out every possibility in   order to obtain a result or find a solution.   “We can’t say it’s impossible until we’ve explored all   avenues.”
   If you fight tooth and nail for something, you fight with all   your energy.   “The Transport Minister fought tooth and nail to have to have   the proposed road safety law accepted.”
If you fly by the seat of your pants, you do something   without knowledge or experience, using only your instinct and   hoping that you will succeed.   “Without any formal training, he decided to fly by the seat of   his pants and try his luck in New York.”
Go the extra mile   If you go the extra mile, you do more than what is expected   of you.   “You can count on Tom; he’s always willing to go the extra   mile.”
  When trying to achieve something, if you go to great lengths,   you do everything that is possible in order to succeed.   “The two parties went to great lengths to reach an agreement.”
Going places   To say that someone is going places means that they show   talent and ability that will no doubt lead to a successful future.   “Even at college it was obvious that Paul was going places.”
  If someone or something goes into overdrive, they begin to   work very hard or start to perform intensely.   “At the start of every new collection, my imagination goes into   overdrive.”
  A person who keeps their nose to the grindstone is   someone who concentrates on working hard at his job.
Hang in there   This expression is used to encourage someone to persevere   and not give up in spite of the difficult circumstances.   “I know the atmosphere is very tense, but just hang in   there and eventually things will calm down.”
Hang on by your fingernails When you hang on by your fingernails, you succeed in   continuing to do something in a very difficult situation.   “The restaurant is losing more and more customers; the owner   is just hanging on by his fingernails.”
  Someone who has their heart set on something wants it   very much.   “From an early age Tiger had his heart set on becoming a   professional golfer.”
A long row to hoe   This expression refers to a difficult task, assignment or   undertaking that will take a long time.   “Getting through medical school is going to be a long row   to hoe.”
Never say die   This expression is used to encourage someone to persevere   in their efforts and not give up or abandon their project.   “Keep going.  It’s too soon to give up.  Never say die!”
Not for (all) the world If you say that you would not do something for (all) the world,   you  mean that you would never do it, not matter what you   were offered.   “I would not live in that building for the world.”
Paddle your own canoe   If you paddle your own canoe, you do what you want to   do without help or interference from anyone.   “He decided to paddle his own canoe and set up his own   company.”
Pound the pavement   Someone who pounds the pavement, walks the streets   or goes from company to company, usually in search of   employment.   You also pound the pavement in an effort to raise funds or   gain support for a cause.   “Charlie is out there pounding the pavement since he lost   his job.”
Pull out all the stops   If you pull out all the stops, you do everything you can to   make something successful.   “We’ll have to pull out all the stops to get the store ready   for the opening day.”
Punch above one’s weight   If you punch above your weight, you try to perform at a level   that is considered to be beyond your ability.   “She submitted her idea for the ‘invention of the year’ award,   knowing that she was punching above her weight.”
Stop at nothing   Someone who would stop at nothing would do anything,   even something illegal or immoral, in order to obtain what   they want.   “He’d stop at nothing if there was a possibility of making   money.”
Take pains   If you take pains to do something, you try very hard or make   a special effort to do something as well as possible.   “Great pains were taken to ensure the athletes’ security.”

 

 

 

 

 

Good luck with your English language learning 

Simon                                                           

Ok English

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English Language Reference- Presentations: Rhetorical Questions Part 2

A great technique that is often used when giving presentations is to first ask a rhetorical question to introduce an emphatic statement.

for example :

So, just how big IS the market?

…………..eNORmous.

* Notice how the adjective in the question is reinforced with a stronger adjective in the answer. Notice also how the verb and strong adjective are stressed.

Exercise One:

Match the rhetorical question on the left with their one-word answers on the right:

1. So, just how bad IS the situation?                            a ….. POsitive.

2. So, just how difficult IS it?                                        b ….. unPREcedented.

3. So, just how competitive ARE we?                          c. ….. specTAcular

4. So, just how sure AM I that we can do it?              d. ….. imPOssible.

5. So, just how good ARE the results?                         e. ….. STATE-of-the-ART.

6. So, just how unusual IS the trend?                           f. …..unBEAtable.

7. So, just how small IS the risk?                                   g. …..cataSTROphic.

8. So, just how new IS this technology?                       h. ….. NEgligible.

Can you notice the placement of word stress in both the questions and the answers? It’s an important point and well worth practising.

Extra question: How many adjectives above can be preceded by:

a. absolutely?

b. practically?

Exercise Two:

Now take a look at this pattern:

So, just how bad is the situation?

> I’ll tell you how bad it is. It’s absolutely catastrophic!

So, just how difficult is it?

> I’ll tell you how difficult it is. It’s practically impossible.

Notice how the second sentence reinforces the rhetorical question. Reinforce the other rhetorical questions in Exercise One in the same way.

According to scientists and scientific studies carried out on the effects and influence of Rhetorical Questions, the following has been observed:

Four experiments were conducted examining the effects of asking rhetorical questions on message processing and persuasion utilizing a radio commercial. Subjects exposed to questions were compared to other subjects exposed to content-equivalent statements across different message positions. The expectations of two different theoretical models of question effects are contrasted and compared. The results of all four experiments are consistent with the view that rhetorical questions elicit judgments on the topic of the request when they are received and that the availability of relevant information when a judgment is first requested is a critical factor determining whether or not message persuasion occurs. The pattern of results predicted by viewing rhetorical questions as elicitors of judgments is differentiated from previous views.

Learning a foreign language ( English for example) is not just about how to speak that language, but HOW to USE it. In professional life this is an all important factor in using the English language.

Good luck with your English language learning.

Simon

Ok English

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English Language Reference -Presentations: Rhetorical Questions part 1

When you ask a rhetorical question, you don’t really expect an answer. The answer is understood. Like when you ask, “Why me?!”

Rhetorical - adjective 1. (of a question) asked only to make a statement or to produce an effect rather than to get an answer.

When something is rhetorical that means it is made for style or effect, likewise a rhetorical question is a question that is asked for mere effect, rather than a question that needs to be answered. Questions like “Who knew?” or “Who’s better than me?” are often rhetorical. This is often a technique used in presentations or speeches to draw the audience’s attention to a specific point or result eg. ” as you can see from the chart July’s profits were up 25% on last year’s July results…why?… well I will  tell you.” So the question is not asked for the reason of receiving an answer from the audience but rather is asked to get attention….then the speaker quickly moves on to give the answer. Which was the speaker’s original intention. So the speaker’s question was rhetorical and required no answer. It was used for effect, that’s all.

It is often more interesting to present your ideas or information as questions rather than direct statements. Questions involve the audience, they are highly interactive and they get attention. They also make your presentation sound more conversational, more personal, and create anticipation in the minds of your audience. Which means you have a greater chance of keeping their attention..and keeping them awake !

Exercise:

The rhetorical questions below can be used in many different situations. Complete each of them using the following pairs of words:         

where+did      how long+ making   how+do   how much+ is

how+working   what sort+ looking   how soon+ seeing   what+waiting

what+attribute   where+go     how come+feeling   what+take

1. For the the fifth year running we’ve managed to increase sales volume.

So, ……….. did we …………….. it?

2. The opportunities in Eastern Europe are better now than they’ve ever been.

So, …….. are ………… for?

3. We’ve lost ground to the Swedes both in Scandinavia and at home.

So, ………… do we …………..from here?

4. We’ve spent the best part of a year ploughing money back into R&D.

So, ……….. do we…….from here?

5. This is the third time we’ve launched a new product, only to have to withdraw it within the first sixth months.

So, ………… do we have to go on …………… the same mistakes?

6. The 8 million Dollars they offered us is good, but not good enough.

So, ………… of figure are we …………….. looking for?

7. We offered them a very attractive package, but they turned us down flat.

So, …………… of figure are we …………….for?

8. As you know, we launched a strict cost-cutting campaign last year.

So, ……………..we’re not ……………………..the benefits yet?

9. Turnover topped 2 billion Dollars again this year.

So, ……………..of that …………………..profit?

10. In spite of the recession, the demand for luxury goods is increasing.

So, ………………… do we ……………………………..this to?

11. Unfortunately, this isn’t the first time our partners have been in breach of contract.

So, ……….action do we propose to ……………….?

12. Obviously, we won’t see the real results of the reorganisation for some time.

So, ………….do we know it’s ……………………………?

OK this was a brief look at rhetorical questions in the context of presentations, public speaking, essays and speeches. It’s great resource to add to your English language knowledge. So go through it try the exercises and please feel free to leave questions and or comments below.

                             

Good luck with your English language learning.

Simon

Ok English

 

 

 

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English Language Synonyms. Part 2.

So on the last post we looked at a few synonyms  of words beginning with the letter ‘a’.

Part 2 of this post will give examples of words beginning with ‘b’ and their synonyms.

basis / foundation / base / bedrock

beat / batter / pound / pummel / lash / hammer

beautiful / pretty / handsome / attractive / lovely / good-looking / gorgeous

become / get / go / turn                    

big / large / great

bill / statement / account / invoice / tab / check

bitter / pungent / sour / acrid / sharp / acid

border / boundary / line / frontier

boring / dull / tedious / uninteresting / dry

bottom / base / foundation / foot

break / rest / breather / breathing space / respite / time out

bright / brilliant / fluorescent / luminous / vivid / vibrant

broken / out of order / broken-down / on the blink

build / construct / assemble / erect / set something up / put something up / put something together

building / property / premises / complex / structure / block / edifice

burn / char / blacken / scald / scorch / singe

OK so there’s a few examples of synonyms for words starting with ‘b‘. Some of them are quite easy and you probably already knew them but some may not be so clear for example why is foot a synonym of bottom? Or why are complex and block synonyms for building?

So go through all of the above examples and if some are not so clear please check your dictionary and see why the synonyms are there, and become more familiar with them.

                                                         

When writing or giving presentations synonyms are very useful. They are a language tool that allows you to use more variety in either an essay or speech so that you can say the same thing several times, but in a different way using a synonym. This way you don’t have to sound repetitive or boring but can bring life and colour to your English language. And as I have said many times before sound professional!

Well good luck with your English language learning

Simon

Ok English

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English Language Synonyms. Part 1

This blog shows the differences between groups of words with similar meanings. The words in each group are given order of frequency_ from the most common to the least common. The word in bold shows you the entry in a dictionary where you can find the note.

action / move / act / gesture / deed / feat

ad / advertisement / commercial / promotion / advert / trailer

admit / acknowledge / concede / confess / allow / grant

afraid / frightened / scared / alarmed / paranoid / apprehensive

agree / approve / consent / acquiesce

almost / nearly / practically

angry / mad / indignant / cross / irate

         

artificial / synthetic / false / man-made / fake / imitation

ask / enquire / demand / query

asleep / fall asleep / go to sleep / get to sleep / drift off / nod off / drop off

Ok so there’s a few beginning with ‘a’ more to follow with ‘b’ in my next blog post.

Good luck with your English language learning.

Simon

Ok English

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Practise Your English. Read This Article. Why Do We Put The Clocks Forward One Hour For British Summer Time?

Spring Forward: 100 years of British Summer Time

British Summer Time

Read through this interesting article and see if there is any new vocabulary for you.

The Shepherd Gate ClockThe Royal Observatory’s public clock, the Shepherd Gate Clock, set permanently to Greenwich Mean Time ©NMM. Repro ID: D56012007 marked 100 years since British Summer Time was first proposed by William Willett. Changing the clocks for summer time is now an annual ritual in Britain and countries around the world. But why change the clocks, which way should they go, and whose idea was it in the first place?

William Willett saves the daylight, 1907–15

Bridle path through Petts WoodBridle path through Petts Wood ©NMM. Repro ID: F6423-039The idea of British Summer Time (BST), also known as Daylight Saving Time, was first proposed in Britain by a keen horse-rider, William Willett, who was incensed at the ‘waste’ of useful daylight first thing in the morning, during summer. Though the sun had been up for hours during his rides through the local woods in Chislehurst and Petts Wood, people were still asleep in bed.

Willett was not the first to propose such a scheme; in 1895 an entomologist in New Zealand, George Vernon Hudson, presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society outlining a daylight saving scheme which was eventually trialled successfully in New Zealand in 1927.

In 1907 Willett published a pamphlet called The Waste of Daylight, outlining plans to encourage people out of bed earlier in summer by changing the time on the nation’s clocks. He spent the rest of his life fighting to get acceptance of his time-shifting scheme. He died in 1915 with the Government still refusing to back BST. But the following year, Germany introduced the system. Britain followed in May 1916, and we have been ‘changing the clocks’ ever since.

The first day of Summer Time, 1916

Home Office poster announcing restoration of Greenwich TimeHome Office poster announcing restoration of Greenwich Time, 1916 ©Private collectionBritain first adopted William Willett’s Daylight Saving Time scheme in 1916, a few weeks after Germany. For years, the British Government had refused to introduce Daylight Saving Time, but by then, Britain and Germany were fighting each other in the First World War (1914-18), and any system that could save fuel and money was worth trying. The Summer Time Act of 1916 was quickly passed by Parliament and the first day of British Summer Time, 21 May 1916, was widely reported in the press.

Clocks and watches were very different from those we use today. Many clocks could not have their hands turned backwards without breaking the mechanism. Instead, owners had to put the clock forward by 11 hours when Summer Time came to an end. The Home Office put out special posters telling people how to reset their clocks to GMT, and national newspapers also gave advice.

Changing times, 1918–39

The Willett memorial in Petts WoodThe Willett memorial in Petts Wood ©NMM. Repro ID: F6423-060William Willett, the tireless champion of the Summer Time scheme, died in 1915. By the 1920s, however, he was becoming a posthumous hero, as more and more people backed his daylight-saving plan. Public money was raised to buy and preserve Petts Wood. This was partly to act as a living memorial to Willett, but mostly as local residents wanted to prevent building development encroaching on their green spaces. A sundial – keeping British Summer Time, not Greenwich Mean Time – was erected there in a clearing.

Willett had become an icon of daylight. A portrait was painted; a bronze bust was sculpted; a pub was named in his memory, and in 1931 a wax figure was unveiled at Madame Tussaud’s in London. But not everybody had come round to Willett’s way of thinking: over the subsequent years, dissenting voices were heard.

Permanent summer, 1968–71

In 1968, the clocks went forward as usual in March, but in the autumn, they did not return to Greenwich Mean Time. Britain had entered a three-year experiment, confusingly called British Standard Time, and stayed one hour ahead of Greenwich until 1971.

This was not the first experiment to shift the clocks in winter. In the Second World War (1939-45), Britain had adopted Double British Summer Time, with the clocks one hour ahead of Greenwich in winter and two hours ahead in summer.

When the British Standard Time experiment ended, the Home Office carried out an exhaustive review to find out whether it had been successful. The answer was both yes and no. There were ‘pros and cons’ to having the clocks forward and, on balance, the Government decided to return to the original British Summer Time.

A century of saving daylight, 1907–2007

The Waste of Daylight by William WillettWithin a few years of its introduction, most countries reasonably north or south of the equator had adopted Daylight Saving Time. But it has been controversial since the day it was first proposed.

After a century of daylight saving, we still cannot agree on whether it is a good thing or not. When proposals to extend the system are occasionally made in Parliament, protest soon comes from those affected by its disadvantages. Daylight Saving Time tries to treat a complex network of symptoms with one solution. But not everybody sees it as a cure. So the debate continues.

When I was young I always wondered why the clocks went forward and back every year and what was the history behind it.

Don’t forget the clocks go forward this Sunday !

Good luck with your English language learning.

Simon

Ok english

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Negotiations In The English Language. Why Do Business People Negotiate?

Read this text about negotiation. Fill the blanks in the text with the words from this list:

agreement - bargaining – compromise – concessions – deadlock – gain – offers – priorities – reactions

A negotiation is a way of reaching an agreement by means of discussion and___________. Each side has something the other wants and both sides are trying to reach an agreement. Negotiators bargain with each other as they make__________ ( ” we will … if you……?) and ask for_______( ” if we….., will you,,,,,?”). Negotiators don’t enter a negotiation expecting to get eveything they want, they know they’ll have to_________ . If they don’t there will be________ and the negotiation will break down.

The purpose of every negotiation is to reach an agreement. Usually both sides are meeting because they have something to______ . In a sales negotiation, the seller wants to sell the goods or services and the buyer wants to buy them. In a pay negotiation, the employer wants the workers to work and the workers want to work. Both sides want to reach an_________, but they have different________ .

A long, important negotiation is conducted differently from a smaller, less important one, but most negotiations include these stages:

1. Preparation – Both sides decide what they want, and prioritise their wants. They anticipate the other side’s _________ and decide what concessions they can make.

2. Proposal – Each side explains it’s proposal: our proposal is……

3. Debate – The sides discuss the proposals: Can you explain why….?

4. Bargaining – The sides make or ask for concessions: If we agree to…., are you prepared to….?

5. Closing – The sides reach an agreement: Do we have a deal then?

So this is just a very brief look at the language skills required to negotiate using the English language. There are many more expressions and vocabulary to use when negotiating in English, here I have just shared a few.

 In future blogs I will go into more detail on all the different expressions to use to be more effective, professional, and in control when you are taking part in negotiatons conducted in the English language. The business world speaks in English. International politics is communicated in English and even inter- faith/religious meetings/debates are in English. I have been trained in negotiation and conflict management, as have many of you. So the techniques required for negotiation,  I am sure are familiar to you, but what I am trying to highlight in this blog and future blogs is simply how to do it when you need to speak in English. That’s it. Simple as.

Good luck with your English language learning, and peaceful harmonious negotiations.                 

Simon

Ok English

 

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English Language Reference Part 2 : Present Perfect Simple & Continuous

      for & since

for + a period of time and since + a point in time are two ways of saying the same thing.

for a few days / for five years / for ages

since Saturday / since I left school / since 1999

been

been is the past participle of go as well as be.

He hasn’t been to the doctor yet. (go)

Have you been abroad this year? (go)

I’ve been ill since last night. (be)

Note: gone is also a past participle of go.

gone = go and not come back.

been = go and come back.

Present Perfect Simple and Continuous

You can use the present perfect when you want to say how long something has continued from a point in the past up to now. For verbs with stative meanings you always use the simple form.

I’ve been a student for two years.

She’s known Tommy since they were at school.

For verbs with dynamic meanings you usually use the continuous form.

I’ve been studying every night.

My friend’s been playing tennis since she was eight.

Note: You can use the simple form for very unchanging, ‘permanent’ situations. Compare:

I’ve been living here since July. ( Temporary)

Ive lived here all my life. (Permanent)

Just another quick look at English grammar. Read through it, think about it, and use it.

Good luck with your English language learning.

Simon                                                   

Ok English

 

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Do you know all of the English words below? Can you use them? If you can you are advancing very nicely in your English language learning!!

200 English words that can be used in a variety of ways. Can you and do you use all of or some of them??

If yes then you have reason to celebrate your advancement in English !!

 

 

  • 1 the
  • 3 of
  • 4 and
  • 5 a
  • 6 to
  • 7 in
  • 8 he
  • 9 have
  • 10 it
  • 11 that
  • 12 for
  • 13 they
  • 14 I
  • 15 with
  • 16 as
  • 17 not
  • 18 on
  • 19 she
  • 20 at
  • 21 by
  • 22 this
  • 23 we
  • 24 you
  • 25 do
  • 26 but
  • 27 from
  • 28 or
  • 29 which
  • 30 one
  • 31 would
  • 32 all
  • 33 will
  • 34 there
  • 35 say
  • 36 who
  • 37 make
  • 38 when
  • 39 can
  • 40 more
  • 41 if
  • 42 no
  • 43 man
  • 44 out
  • 45 other
  • 46 so
  • 47 what
  • 48 time
  • 49 up
  • 50 go
  • 51 about
  • 52 than
  • 53 into
  • 54 could
  • 55 state
  • 56 only
  • 57 new
  • 58 year
  • 59 some
  • 60 take
  • 61 come
  • 62 these
  • 63 know
  • 64 see
  • 65 use
  • 66 get
  • 67 like
  • 68 then
  • 69 first
  • 70 any
  • 71 work
  • 72 now
  • 73 may
  • 74 such
  • 75 give
  • 76 over
  • 77 think
  • 78 most
  • 79 even
  • 80 find
  • 81 day
  • 82 also
  • 83 after
  • 84 way
  • 85 many
  • 86 must
  • 87 look
  • 88 before
  • 89 great
  • 90 back
  • 91 through
  • 92 long
  • 93 where
  • 94 much
  • 95 should
  • 96 well
  • 97 people
  • 98 down
  • 99 own
  • 100 just
  • 101 because
  • 102 good
  • 103 each
  • 104 those
  • 105 feel
  • 106 seem
  • 107 how
  • 108 high
  • 109 too
  • 110 place
  • 111 little
  • 112 world
  • 113 very
  • 114 still
  • 115 nation
  • 116 hand
  • 117 old
  • 118 life
  • 119 tell
  • 120 write
  • 121 become
  • 122 here
  • 123 show
  • 124 house
  • 125 both
  • 126 between
  • 127 need
  • 128 mean
  • 129 call
  • 130 develop
  • 131 under
  • 132 last
  • 133 right
  • 134 move
  • 135 thing
  • 136 general
  • 137 school
  • 138 never
  • 139 same
  • 140 another
  • 141 begin
  • 142 while
  • 143 number
  • 144 part
  • 145 turn
  • 146 real
  • 147 leave
  • 148 might
  • 149 want
  • 150 point
  • 151 form
  • 152 off
  • 153 child
  • 154 few
  • 155 small
  • 156 since
  • 157 against
  • 158 ask
  • 159 late
  • 160 home
  • 161 interest
  • 162 large
  • 163 person
  • 164 end
  • 165 open
  • 166 public
  • 167 follow
  • 168 during
  • 169 present
  • 170 without
  • 171 again
  • 172 hold
  • 173 govern
  • 174 around
  • 175 possible
  • 176 head
  • 177 consider
  • 178 word
  • 179 program
  • 180 problem
  • 181 however
  • 182 lead
  • 183 system
  • 184 set
  • 185 order
  • 186 eye
  • 187 plan
  • 188 run
  • 189 keep
  • 190 face
  • 191 fact
  • 192 group
  • 193 play
  • 194 stand
  • 195 increase
  • 196 early
  • 197 course
  • 198 change
  • 199 help
  • 200 line

Good luck with your English language learning.

Simon

Ok English

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English Language Reference Part 1: What’s it like?; nouns & quantity

What’s it like?

This question asks about  the characteristics of people or things. You usually answer it with an adjective or adjective phrase.

” What’s London like?” “It’s big and exciting.”

“What are the people in your village like?” “They’re very friendly”.

Countable nouns

These refer to things which can be counted. You use them with a/an or put a number in front of them. You usually form the plural by adding -s, -es, -ies.

a car- 54 cars

a crow – 108 crows

a church- 7 churches

a country- 64 countries

Note: A few common countable nouns have irregular plural forms.

a child – two children

a foot – two feet

a man – two men

a mouse – two mice

a person – two people

a tooth- two teeth

a woman- two women

Uncountable nouns

These refer to things which cannot be counted. You cannot use a/an or put a number in front of them.

advice  food  furniture  information   love   music   rain   traffic   travel   weather   work

Quantity

These are ways you can talk about quantity if you can’t or don’t want to use an exact number.

With countable nouns: (only) a few/ (far) too many /

How many…?

There were only a few people who saw them.

How many e-mails do you get everyday ?

With uncountable nouns: (only) a little/ (far) too much/ how much…?

There’s a little water left but no juice.

How much sleep do you get at night ?

With countable and uncountable nouns: a lot of/ lots of/ not enough

There are a lot of problems with this plan.

There was lots of good food at the party.

She didn’t give me enough information

Ok so that was a quick look at some English grammar. Read through it, think about it and remember it. It is useful information.

Good luck with your English Language Leaning.

Simon

Ok english

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